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[Grammar for LELTS] Present tenses

Present simple (一般现在时)

verb/verb + (e)s He plays tennis
do/does not + verb She doesn’t play tennis
do/does … + verb ? Do you play tennis ?

一般现在时用于

  • 经常性的习惯或反复发生的动作:
    • 描述频率的词汇包括 (always, generally, normally, usually, often, sometimes, rarely, never, every day, every evening).
  • 永久性的情况或状态
    • 要表示某件事持续了多久时,应使用现在完成时,而非一般现在时
  • 陈述事实或广为接受的真理
    • 通常使用的词汇 (generally, mianly, normally, usually, traditionally)
  • 提供指导或指示
  • 讲述故事、电影、书籍和戏剧

Present continuous (现在进行时)

am/is/are + verb + -ing He’s living in Thailand
am/is/are not + verb + -ing I ‘m not living in Thailand
am/is/are … _ verb + -ing ? Are they living in Thailand ?

现在进行时用于

  • 现在的情况或状态
    • My cousin is living in Thailand at the moment. (= he doesn’t normally live there)
    • 此类经常使用的单词或短语包括 (at the moment, currently, now, this week/mouth/year)
  • 说话间正在发生的动作
  • 趋势或正在变化的情况
  • 经常发生的动作
    • 常与 (always, constantly, continually, forever) 这类副词连用,表示羡慕、批评等情绪

State verbs (状态动词)

因为状态动词本身的意思是想表达一种事实而不是暂时的事情,所以状态动词通常并不出现在现在进行时的句子里。状态动词表达想法、感情、感知、占有和描述等状态

以下是一些状态动词的例子:

  • 想法
    • agree, assume, believe, disagree, forget, hope, know, regret, remember, suppose, think, understand.
  • 感情
    • adore, despise, dislike, enjoy, feel, hate, like, love, mind, prefer, want.
  • 感知
    • feel, hear, see, smell, taste
    • 但谈论事情正在发生时,可以使用 can
  • 占有
    • have, own, belong
  • 描述
    • appear, contain, look, look like, mean, resemble, seem, smell, sound, taste, weigh
  • 当意思本身表暂时性时,一些状态动词可以使用进行时,比较以下几组句子:

    • What are you thinking about ? (now)
    • I think you should tell her exactly what happend. (my opinion, so not temporary)

    • I’m tasting the sauce to see if if needs any more salt.

    • The sauce tastes delicious

    • She ‘s having a great time. (is having = is experiencing, not possession)

    • Students don’t generally have much money. (have = possession)